The design of Chinese cities is guided by philosophical principles established in the early dynastic period. Imperial cities follow a regular grid pattern that faces south, and includes an inner city, open only to the imperial leaders and aristocrats, and an outer city in which the business is carried out. The design and use of the city is guided by Confucian and Daoist ideals. Religious centers follow palace designs, but are tied to Buddhist, Confucian and Daoist practice. Village centers are arranged according to Daoist ideas about nature called Fengshui.